Economic regulation and E-scooter networks in the USA PMC

It outlines and critiques some of the ideas that have been advanced regarding the types of markets e-scooters serve and the managerial economic models that suppliers have sought to adopt. This then forms a basis for considering the economic rationale for market interventions, the forms these interventions have taken, and, where possible, their short-run outcomes. The Air Cargo industry in the Thailand market has seen exceptional growth in the last decade. This considerable growth in the last decades is expected to continue in the next decade, it creates an interest in researchers and stakeholders to study.

Dockless bicycles use smartphone Apps and GPS trackers creating the ability to rent a bicycle and leave it virtually anywhere in a city. Low initial and operating expenses, combined with local authority financial support in some cities, made the mode convenient and economical for customers. Dockless systems and alternate forms of payment also allowed for increased access to more impoverished communities expanding the potential market size for suppliers as well as meeting social needs. The arrival of the e-scooter soon followed and quickly superseded the dockless bicycle in many places (Clewlow, 2019).7
The notion sometimes expressed that scooters were a disruption innovation, however, overstates the situation.

Navigating the energy transition: International oil company diversification strategies

But thesecharacteristics are matters of degree rather than rigid parameters. This paper looks at the challenges in the economic regulation of stand-up electronic scooters, or “e-scooters”. The e-scooter represents one of several innovative modes that have emerged to cater for transportation needs in urban areas.

  • If an incumbent operator makes any degree of short-run profit, this will attract competition.
  • Dockless systems and alternate forms of payment also allowed for increased access to more impoverished communities expanding the potential market size for suppliers as well as meeting social needs.
  • 27The majority of the chargers are in the gig economy combining their income from charging with other sources.
  • (Cisco initiated its dividend in 2011.) As Cisco’s dividend growth is untested during adverse economic conditions, I am not confident in Cisco’s willingness to grow its dividend when times are tough.

The old-economy warhorse generates profits at a rate that rivals those of the best tech, pharmaceutical, and financial services companies. In 2014, Union Pacific logged $5.18 billion in net profits on sales of $24 billion, for a return-on-revenues ratio of 21.6%. By that measure, the railroad company ties Apple (21.6%) (AAPL) and beats J.P. Morgan (21.3%) (JPM), Goldman Sachs (21.1%) (GS), Intel (20.9%) How Big Is Purchased Transportation Cost For UPS? — Trefis (INTC), Google (20.2%) (GOOG), and Pfizer (18.4%) (PFE). The only non-oil industrial enterprise that ranks higher is forest products producer Weyerhaeuser (22.9%) (WY), whose sales are one-third those of Union Pacific’s. IOCs have diverging views on many of the issues at hand and have chosen to address the energy transition in different ways, so which strategies will ultimately be successful?

Dataset Creation

Eighth, the further development of battery technologies is widely considered to be the potentially most disruptive factor for IOCs, as cheaper and more efficient batteries can speed up the deployment of electric vehicles, fundamentally affecting oil demand. The grid-scale deployment of batteries could also threaten the role of natural gas in electricity generation. While, as we have seen, much of the economic concern with scooters has to do with the negative externalities they generate, there are also, from a different perspective, concerns over the stability of underlying e-scooters business model. Many individuals’ decisions are dependent of their wider economic environment. In particular, when it comes to long-term decisions relating to where a household should live or a firm locate, guaranteed local transportation availability can matter. Good and quasi-guaranteed access to destinations positively influences long-term decisions; it is a positive externality.

  • 15There are arguments that empty cores are a serious market failure in the supply of other forms of transportation; e.g. the scheduled airline (Button, 1996) and scheduled merchant shipping (Pirrong, 1992).
  • It is generally seen as embracing a mode of transportation that can occupy space alongside bicycles.
  • International oil companies (IOCs) are facing a set of interconnected challenges that will fundamentally affect their business models.
  • The heavy traffic slowed its trains, and railcars spent far more time in storage between trips.
  • This also found trips between 0.5 and 2 miles accrue the largest benefits riders.
  • Denver in 2018 gave permits to five scooter companies to initially operate 350 scooters each over a trial period.

The simple fact that there are speed limits and protective headwear is required offers a nudge to the fact scooting is a dangerous activity and can potentially be harmful to others. The increasing number of warnings printed on scooters, as well as publicly available on-line guides for scooter users, provide a boost to this. E-scooters often meet a demand that current services do not, or only do so in a second-best way. Scooter rides are typically under two miles, which is often too short a distance for hailing a taxi or a TNC ride, or to drive it you already own a car. Providing a service for filling this gap is part of why ride-hailing services like Uber and Lyft are so keen on e-scooters; it increases their portfolio of services.

Dataset Structure

Originally, the operators mainly used off-the-shelf e-scooters being sold retail. This paper pulls together the insights that have been obtained regarding the economics of e-scooter markets. It also considers the political-economy of the regulatory approaches urban authorities in the US have adopted to steer the market in e-scooters. To do this, it sets out an economic framework making use of both what is to be found in the mainstream academic journals (often parochially called “the literature”) and in the “gray literature” (reports, professional journals, serious newspapers, Web contributions, etc.).

How Big Is Purchased Transportation Cost For UPS? -- Trefis

In Thailand, the majority of the logistic operators are small-scale based operators. Most of the local logistics companies in Thailand have trekking fleet operators, including pickup products from one location to another. Thailand is one of six countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region, strengthen the transport bonds between other countries, which improves boundary-boundary transport connectivity. Market revenue for logistics and warehouses has shown positive growth over the years in Thailand. Indeed, the 153-year-old Union Pacific—often referred to as “UP” within the rail industry—is not only outpacing Buffett’s railroad but also beating almost every other industrial company in the Fortune 500.

Dataset Curators

At the same time the sudden decline in oil prices caused a slowdown in fracking activity. To make matters worse, labor strife at the ports in Los Angeles and Long Beach caused a big drop in shipments of imports from Asia. Union Pacific’s freight revenues actually fell 1% in the first quarter compared with the first three months of 2014, the first such decline in six years.

Practically, subsidiarity is tending to push matters of parking, no-go areas, etc. down to the local level. At Santa Teresa and other terminals near the Mexican border, Union Pacific is also capitalizing on Mexico’s fast-growing manufacturing base. In recent years virtually all the world’s major automakers—Nissan, Ford, Chrysler, BMW, and many others—have announced or completed major manufacturing hubs in Mexico, in projects totaling $12 billion. The nation’s car production is forecast to rise from 3 million vehicles in 2014 to 4.7 million by 2019. Union Pacific owns a big chunk of Ferromex, or FXE, one of Mexico’s leading railroads. FXE carries trainloads of cars to Union Pacific’s gateways, where the cargoes switch to UP locomotives.

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